Dissertation (BA Hons) University of Wales Institute, Cardiff, 1999.
|Series||BA (Hons) Sport & Human Movement Studies|
|The Physical Object|
cused on male sports participation, and this is apparently because of the greater frequency and societal signiﬁcance of male sports (e.g., Chick, Loy, & Miracle, ; Roberts et al., ; Sipes, ). The ﬁrst systematic attempt to assess the frequency of male and female sports across societies was recently undertaken, and itFile Size: KB. A 2 (gender: male/ female) x 2 (peer attitudes: positive/negative) x 2 (fear of negative evaluation: high/low) between-subject ANOVA was conducted for data analysis. The findings revealed that males are more likely than females to participate in masculine sports, while females are more likely than males to participate in feminine by: 2. Nevertheless, media images in sports endorses the stereotyped view of men's and women's bodies, emphasizing strength and physical abilities in the case of male athletes but featuring female. Title IX was monumental in increasing the participation of women in sports, but women still face scrutiny and stereotyping because of social norms, which define women as being fragile, less capable, and passive. Furthermore, sport has always been seen as a masculinized entity, and therefore, women are perceived as intruding on male boundaries.
Predominantly male, sporting event organisers and commentators may create hyper-sexualised and degrading representations of physically strong women, because of a social anxiety towards non-stereotypical feminine women participating in such aggressive, sophisticated and stereotypically male sports. Women adhering to male stereotype attributes. “traditional male sports”. Zimmerman and Reaville () report that the number of girls and women participating in recreational and competitive football, boxing, and wrestling, has grown. They also state that female participation in extreme sports (or “X sports”) such as snowboarding, skateboarding, and inline skating, has also increased. Female Participation In Traditionally Male Sports. 10th September In a recent article the Mail covered the contemporary topic of girls, attending private schools, being allowed to participate in traditionally male sports. (Click here for the article). The rise of girls wanting to play sport typically dominated by males, including football. The myths surrounding women's participation in sports during the first half of the 20th century C- were widely accepted because they were seen to protect women's bodies. To avoid appease men and discourage men from seeing them as invaders of male spaces in sports, female .
Participation in the programme has become synonymous with being aware of gendered roles and norms. Opportunities for women and girls’ leadership and achievement. Evidence from developing countries indicates that some sports programmes provide women and girls with opportunities to . Sport and Early Attempts at participation- Sexing the Female as Unathletic 1) Sports as Male Preserves: Scientific and Moral Legitimations for Exclusion 2) The Seeds of Resistance from Within the Dominant, ‘Scientific’ Discourse 3) Consolidation of Resistance: The . Women’s sports, along with the less masculine men’s sports (the so called non-revenue sports), take the hit. Title IX offers little resistance. It does not require equal funding of men’s and women’s sports; funding is just one factor in a qualitative comparison of the overall men’s and women’s programs. women, and differences between the types of sports in which men and women choose to participate (Harrison & Lynch, ). Generally, women choose sports stereotypically defined as feminine, such as gymnastics and ballet. When the sport is considered masculine, female participation diverges from what are considered conventional social.